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International Affairs Forum a platform to encourage a more complete understanding of the world's opinions on international relations and economics. It presents a cross-section of all-partisan mainstream content, from left to right and across the world.

By reading International Affairs Forum, not only explore pieces you agree with but pieces you don't agree with. Read the other side, challenge yourself, analyze, and share pieces with others. Most importantly, analyze the issues and discuss them civilly with others.

And, yes, send us your essay or editorial! Students are encouraged to participate.

Please enter and join the many International Affairs Forum participants who seek a better path toward addressing world issues.
Wed. May 31, 2023
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International Affairs Forum

Around the World, Across the Political Spectrum


The following are some basic guidelines to use as you prepare your electronic manuscript for the Center for International Relations. If you spend a lot of time using your software to format your manuscript and customize the way it looks, we, in turn, must spend time paring your manuscript back down to its basic elements to ensure that the whole process goes smoothly.

Use the following guidelines to ensure that the document you submit to us will be ready to edit without further ado:

  • Do not use the space bar to achieve tabs or indents or to align text.
  • Use the same typeface, or font, throughout the entire manuscript.
  • If an article has more than one level of subheads, differentiate them visually. An example would be bolding all A-heads, centering all B-heads, and italicizing all C-heads. Although this is only an example, your headings must be consistently styled throughout your article.
  • Format prose extracts (block quotations) and verse extracts with your word processor's feature for indenting paragraphs. Insert a hard return only at the end of a paragraph or a line of verse. Do not "line up" text using the space bar—adjust the indent level instead.
  • Do not "manually" create hanging indents for your bibliography by using hard returns and tabs in the middle of an entry. Instead, use the hanging indent feature in your word processing program. If you are unsure how to do this, simply indent the first line of each entry (i.e., format them like the paragraphs in the rest of the book).
  • No two pages of your manuscript should have the same number and no page should be submitted unnumbered. Number the pages consecutively throughout the manuscript.

Style Guides

Each organization or publisher prefers different methods of style. When preparing manuscripts for the Center for International Relations, please refer to the following texts:

Use the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition (CMOS), as the basic tool for manuscript preparation and editing. However, the CIR style sheet (on the Web site) and the following style guides overrule CMOS on specific matters:

Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 11th edition (Webster's 11th), overrules CMOS on spelling and hyphenation.

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th edition (APA), overrules CMOS on citation and reference style.

A Word About References...

These cause more trouble than any other element of a manuscript because authors do not record complete information either when taking notes or when preparing the manuscript. Please use APA citation style in the text and in the reference list at the end of the chapter. Variant spellings of names, missing initials, missing page numbers, missing dates, missing cities, missing volume numbers, etc. lead to publishing delays.

Do not overuse citations. This is an article and most likely presents a lot of information commonly held by experienced teachers and practitioners. This is your article. You can define terms. You should not be citing five other persons for definitions of common knowledge.

A Word About Copyright Law...

Charts, Tables, Graphs, and Maps

Charts, tables, graphs, and maps taken from copyrighted sources must be covered by permission in the same manner as quoted text matter. Photographs require a different approach and are discussed separately.

Permission to use charts, tables, graphs, and maps should be secured even in cases where they are brought up to date or otherwise adapted to our purposes and even if our art department later redraws them for better reproduction results. In such cases, permission to adapt should be secured.

A Word About Fair Use...

The law permits short direct quotations to be used, provided proper credit is given to the author and source, without the need to obtain written permission from the holder of the copyright. This is considered "fair use" and, although the law is not specific, can generally be assumed to apply to excerpts totaling 300 or so words from any given work.

Judgment must be used in deciding if even a short quotation is "fair use." If an author should write "The essential Dart of this entire work is, etc., etc., etc." using that quotation without permission might well be considered violation of his copyright. Consideration must be given also to the effect your use of an excerpt will have on the sale of the original work. If you are quoting from a personal letter, the permission of the writer must be obtained. Permission to quote from a thesis or lecture must be secured. You might find it necessary to get permission to quote from yourself if another publisher holds the copyright to that work. Fair use does not apply to illustrations, cartoons, poems, lyrics, dictionary definitions, and other such matter. These are fully protected by copyright.

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