By K.N. Pandita
Paris carnage shadowed the G-20 Anatoly (Turkey) summit. Besides a press release summing up economic and developmental agenda, the summit released a 9-point agenda on its fight against terrorism.
The G-20 was not as specific and vociferous on its policy on terrorism in any of its previous summits as at Anatoly. This shows that it takes terrorism now even if the Mumbai carnage of 2008, which claimed a toll of over 200 innocent souls, did not scratch its humanistic sentiment.
The agenda merits very close study. Despite reassuring intentions, the agenda asks for clarification on a number of points. It has to be read along with the lengthy press statement of President Obama on terrorism issued simultaneously. That shows how hobbled the thinking is on terrorism. The contradictions are subtle.
The statement starts with condemnation of heinous attacks in Paris and Ankara, which “are not acceptable to G-20.” Are the attacks that happened prior to these two, including the 9/11 and 26/11, acceptable to G-20? Obviously not. All terrorist attacks are condemnable.
The summit speaks of the spread of terrorist organizations and their significant rise globally. However, it does not shed any light on the reasons for the spread of terrorist organizations. It does not make any mention of state-sponsored terrorist organizations. Without identifying regions/countries where terrorism has struck roots with the connivance of state agencies, including their armed forces, anti-terror resolution loses its weight. G-20 members know the regions and countries since they are dealing with them.
The resolution “unequivocally condemns all acts, methods and practices of terrorism, which cannot be justified under any circumstances, regardless of their motivation, in all their forms and manifestations, wherever and by whosoever committed.” Presuming that this is firm commitment, the agenda says nothing about the “national liberation” slogan coined by terrorists in justification of their acts of terror. Terrorists legitimize their criminality by labeling it as struggle to liberate Islam from the stranglehold of big economic powers or “foreign occupational forces”. The resolution should have specifically stated which movement G-20 considers a true national liberation movement, and which one as outright terrorism. It should have highlighted the dividing line.
We may ask whether an armed movement is a genuine ‘national liberation movement’ when it begins its mission with ethnic cleansing of its minorities. Terrorists usually project themselves activists of national liberation movement.
This contradiction spills over to the UN Charter also, which allows external ‘moral, political and diplomatic’ support to a so-called “national liberation movement.” The US Constitution allows US intervention in regions of conflict to support national liberation movements. Clarification of this enactment becomes unavoidable in the light of the resolve of G-20. The focus is on “national liberation movement.”
The US in Iraq and Afghanistan, and Pakistan in Kashmir have taken shelter behind this provision of the UN Charter. Incidentally, as we say one man’s terrorist is another man’s hero, one country’s overt and covert intervention in another country is ‘humanistic support’ while similar action by another country is ‘intervention or illegal occupation.’
As far as financing channels for the terrorist are concerned, we know that terrorists raise Trusts, Charity Organizations, NGOs and other institutions as cover for receiving and disbursing funds. They seldom use banks channels. Many of these organizations have come up in G-20 member states. President Putin of Russia said that he knew about 40 organizations that are functioning in G-20 member states, that play conspicuous roles in funding terrorism globally.
Nearly a month and half ago, Pakistan's former Army chief and President Pervez Musharraf told a Pakistani TV Channel that his country had provided all facilities, arms and ammunition and other logistical support to various Pakistani groups for fighting the Indians in Kashmir.
Lashkar-e-Taiba, the major armed terrorist group in Pakistan is listed by the US Foreign office as a terrorist organization. Pakistan has also banned it and yet its armed terrorists have been captured by Indian security forces while they sneaked into Indian territory in Kashmir and attacked a military convoy.
The sale of US arms including F-16 fighter-bombers to Pakistan is an open secret. US-made Patton tanks were captured by Indian army during Indo-Pak war and are now on display at various places in India. According to the official statement of the US, one condition imposed by US on Pakistan in connection with the sale of these tanks and other weaponry was that these would not be used against India. Pakistan never adhered to that clause of agreement with the US and when Indian government draw the attention of the US towards violation of agreement by Pakistan, the US simply turned its head the other side. .
Even when a government in a terrorist-affected country points out involvement of specific international organizations in clandestine money laundering, the concerned countries, instead of investigating and checking the irregularity, try to shield or even justify it. That is a form of state sponsored terrorism. The resolution should have made it clear that such institutions and agencies will be working against the law and against the interests of the mother country. If the country takes no action to curb their clandestine financial activities, the international community should be empowered to deal with it effectively.
The resolution states that, “The fight against terrorism is a major priority for all of our countries…..” . This sounds hollow when we look in retrospect. The most powerful and daring act of promoting terrorism was, first, the Soviet incursion into Afghanistan in 1979, and second, joint American and Pakistani response to it. This event laid the foundation of the worst type of terrorism ever known to humankind.
American success in defeating the Soviets through a proxy war in Afghanistan became the prelude to terror-proxying on international plane. Not only that, its most devastating fallout was that of igniting the flames of Islamic religious extremism in the entire region. Afghanistan, with its shining history of secularism, was pushed into the vortex of worst known sectarianism in the form of Taliban, thanks to General Babar of Pakistan, who had the blessings of Benazir Bhutto the then Prime Minister of Pakistan.
What an irony. Today the US is fighting the same Taliban in whose shaping it played a crucial role. Today the US is calling them terrorists and fundamentalists while they were her heroes and super cops when they were awash with Kalashnikov.
Finally, the anti-terror resolution of the G-20 states that, “continued and recent terrorist attacks all across the world have shown once again the need for increased international cooperation and solidarity in the fight against terrorism.” Did the world community cooperate with India when, two decades ago, India placed before it the looming threat to international peace in the wake of a rising crescendo of religion-based terrorism in its part of the globe? Did they cooperate with India when external terrorists planned Mumbai carnage? Are they cooperating with India in asking the sponsors of Mumbai terrorism to bring the culprit to book? The summit calls for increased international cooperation only when terror has struck so fiercely in France.
What validity can such flamboyant statements have when we know the US has been selling sophisticated weapons and war material to such countries that are characterized by their own experts as the breeding ground of international terror. Didn’t Pakistan’s former military ruler publicly acknowledge raising, abetting and sponsoring terror organizations on its soil to realize political goals? Has not the US categorized a number of organizations in such countries as “terrorist organizations” and imposed bans on them? These organizations were obviously banned after ascertaining through their own and other sources about their connection with their benefactors including the army. Was not Osama bin Laden found in a country that denied his presence on its soil until last moment?
In final analysis, hopefully the G-20 countries are serious in issuing their anti-terrorist statement in Turkey. It should not have minced words and adopted ambiguous polemics in addressing a crucial issue faced by the democratic and free countries of the world. It should have identified the countries that are irrefutably harboring terrorist organizations on their soil, providing them with all support under the rubric of “national liberation movement” and, in addition, projecting themselves as victims of terrorism.
The G-20 should not only have identified such countries but also notified them for imposition of UN sanctions. This would have convinced the world that G-20 is serious in combating terrorism. That would have sounded the death-knell to global terrorism.
K.N. Pandita is the former Director of the Centre of Central Asian Studies, Kashmir University, India.